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Label-Free Applications

The loss of antigens on the surface of or within mammalian cells is a source of error and bias in antibody based detection. Antigens that become down-regulated due to a variety of factors can result in missed detections that lead to false negatives. Below are some literature examples of this phenomenon in a variety of applications.

Papers describing antigen loss in mammalian cells


  1. Loss of red cell A, B, and H antigens is frequent in myeloid malignancies - Link
  2. Clinical implication of HLA class I expression in breast cancer - Link
  3. beta2-Microglobulin mutations, HLA class I antigen loss, and tumor progression in melanoma - Link

Infectious disease:

  1. Interactions of HIV-1 with antigen-presenting cells - Link
  2. Hepatitis B Virus e Antigen Loss during Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy Is Associated with Enhanced Virus-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Reactivity - Link

Cell clearance:

  1. Accurate apoptosis measurement requires quantification of loss of expression of surface antigens and cell fragmentation - Link
  2. Loss of lineage antigens is a common feature of apoptotic lymphocytes - Link